Essays On Earthquake
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Earthquake is a natural disaster that causes lots of damage and loss of lives. Earthquakes are result of the sudden release of earth’s energy stored in earth’s crust. Earthquakes are also called quakes, tremor, or seismic activity and result in the creation of seismic waves. It is measured by Richter scale; the earthquake with magnitude of 3 is harmless whereas a quake with magnitude 7 or more is harmful and causes serious damage over a large place. Earthquakes can not be predicted but the damages caused by it can be prevented by adopting some preventive measures.
The point where earthquake start is called focus and the point just above the focus on earth surface is called epicenter. The earth is made of many tectonic plates which are continuously moving inside the earth surface when these plates brush against each other they cause earthquake. Most earthquakes occur at the edges of these plates therefore the area which is located at these edges is likely to face more earthquake. Japan is one such country that is located on earthquake belt and thus there are numerous earthquakes that take place over there. The earth inner layers are full of molten lava which can also trigger earthquake. The movement of molten rocks or magma results in waves that causes trembling of earth surface. An earthquake which occurs due to movement of molten lava can work as warning against volcanic eruption. The earth crust move to and fro to release its energy created due to intense pressure inside the earth crust.
On earth surface the earthquake is felt as shaking and trembling. The main effects of earthquake are listed below:
Shaking and ground rapture:
When earthquake occur the first impact is shaking of the earth’s surface it can be felt for small earthquake also but it does not result in any kind of disaster. But when the earthquake is of higher magnitude then the shaking is do intense that it results in the collapsing of buildings. The area near epicenter is likely to face more disaster than other areas near by it. Also the destruction depends on geological, geomorphological and geostructural feature. Area with soft soil is more prone to excessive destruction than with hard soil.
Ground rapture is the visible faults on the surface of earth sometimes these faults can be so large that it can become serious problem for constructions like dams. They can be several meter large.
Earthquake when occur at high altitudes can shake slopes can result in instability and thus result in land slides. It becomes a serious problem as roads are blocked due to this and it gets difficult to provide relief to the earthquake victims. Also it results in greater destruction.
It also occur at high altitudes and at the mountains that are covered with snow the instability of the earth surface and trembling makes the snow roll down the slope with great speed. It makes impossible to provide relief to the victims.
The earthquakes result in the rupture of gas or petrol pipes thus fire spread and becomes a serious problem as it gets impossible to control such fire. For example in San Francisco earthquake more lives were lost due to fire than due to earthquake.
This results due to sand losing its strength and converting to liquid. This causes buildings and man made structures to sink in and ultimately collapsing upon themselves.
Tsunami is a Japanese word meaning long sea waves. Tsunami occurs with earthquake more than 7.2 and it results in rushing of sea water at very great speed in the coastal area. Tsunami waves can be as high as 100 meter and can travel 600 to 700 km in 1 hour. All the coastal area gets logged with water and then results in birth of various diseases.
If dams are damages due to earthquake it can result in floods that is flowing of water from water source to land it results in diseases and shortage of potable water.
Due to earthquake and its effects lot of destruction occurs it results in loss of lives, collapsing of buildings and loss of crops. Earthquakes can be stop but its effects can be reduced by taking some preventive measures. Scientists are working to predict earthquake, engineers have designed buildings that can stand a high magnitude earthquake. People are made aware of what to do can they feel shaking of earth. The foremost thing for us is to turn of any source of fire and reach out for open place.
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