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Essay Paper on Conditions

In psychology there exist two different types of learning, often referred to as classical and operant conditionings. Both of them we can notice in our day-to-day life. Furthermore, the theory of these conditionings is able to explain why people or animals react in a certain way while being in a certain situation.

It was Ivan Pavlov, Russian scientists, who first described the classical conditioning. Classical conditioning is the conditioning of associative learning. It means that we all tend to connect some things with each other. For instance, the end of June for the majority of students is associated with the end of school, i.e. rest time. Thus, when the end of June actually comes the students are very reluctant to work those last days being ready to go for vacation. Therefore, if all of a sudden the vacation time is transferred to the mid of July, those two or three additional weeks of study would be just a waste of time, cause psychologically all the students do not accept the new condition of the necessity to study, their minds and cognition are turned towards the direction of rest and vacation.

In such a way, we can define classical conditioning as the actions predetermined by a certain situation that we associate it with. In classical conditioning the response is a reflex, while in operant conditioning it is a previously neutral piece of behavior. Thus, we’ve come to the definition of operant condition as well. Operant conditioning refers to how an organism operates on the environment. Operant conditioning comes from how we respond to what is presented to us in our environment.

It can be thought of as learning due to the natural consequences of our actions. In addition, in operant conditioning there is a contingency between response and reinforcement while in classical conditioning no such contingency applies. Simply saying, as it was mentioned before, classical conditioning makes a person act simultaneously without thinking, just as a reflex. Therefore, those are the basic differences between classical and operant conditioning, which are to be explained in more details…

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