Essay Paper on Nature of Logic and Perception
Critical thinking is a mental process of gathering info, evaluating and testing it, particularly testing propositions that are offered as true. In other words critical thinking is the process of testing all info on its truthfulness. Logic is a part of critical thinking as logic is used in order to study arguments and distinguish good from bad arguments. Logic describes how reasoning ought to take place. Therefore logic is prescriptive; it tells how something has to be.
When person learns some new information, before believing it, critical thinking takes place: person gathers own information on this topic (observes, has previous experience, etc.), collects logical arguments that would support each other and evaluates each argument, at the end judgment takes place and person chooses whether to believe this new information or not.
Therefore logic is a tool that is used in a critical thinking process in order to assess truthfulness of a statement or argument. It is our only protection against deception and lie. If a person did not have critical thinking ability, he/she would be easily deceived, as he/she would simply believe all the information without using logic or perception to assess its truthfulness.
The process of acquiring, interpreting and organizing sensory information is called perception. Perception is used in critical thinking process in order to gather and test information too. And critical thinking process can be manipulated by perception. For example, a person does not believe in U.F.O., his critical thinking tells him that stories about U.F.O. are just fairy tales as there are no reliable proofs. But if that person will face U.F.O. himself, perception will completely change his critical thinking process, and even though there still are no reliable proofs, person will believe in U.F.O.’s existence as he believes his sensual information.
But sometimes there are obstacles that prevent a person to undoubtedly see a problem or the arguments, these obstacles are called perceptual blocks. There are several types of perceptual blocks that one can face: The first one is called stereotyping, which is seeing what you want or expect to see. When a person expects something to be true, he will see it this way, without using logic to assess truthfulness. The second is paradigm, which is the way we view the world. Each of us has his/her own background or so called frame of reference, and we see the world from our own “glasses”, someone sees everything in pink, someone in black and white, someone in grey.
The third is when person fails to eliminate all extra unneeded information and fails to isolate the problem. The fourth is when a person fails to see the problem from other people’s view, from different angles. The fifth, is the tendency to impose too many limitations on possible solution to the problem, it can be compared to the tunnel vision, when you see only one solution and ignore everything else.
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